At What Age Your Baby Can Use a Walker

Now that your baby is showing rapid signs of growth, you must be keen to see him take his first steps. Walking is an important event in the baby’s life and the parents, too, as it signifies independence. To help your baby along this path of discovery and freedom, you may want to encourage him by bringing home a walker.

While there is no fixed appropriate age for a baby to use a walker, the baby’s strength, development and size will have to be considered before making a decision. Walkers are usually designed for babies between the ages of 4 to 16 months. Apart from this, the baby needs to be able to hold his head up quite steadily and have his feet touch the floor when placed in the walker, to be able to use it.

Advantages of Baby Walkers

Here are a few pros of buying a walker for your baby:

  • Engaging and Inspiring

    Most baby walkers are fitted with simple toys or attractions to keep the baby engaged and busy. They are designed to stimulate mental growth and provide visual stimulation, too. A walker allows you to carry on with your daily tasks since the baby remains engaged with the attached toys.

  • Encourage Babies to Walk

    With support at hand, your baby may be encouraged to take his first steps. It helps the baby understand how the standing pose will aid walking, and he will make attempts to get going on his own.

  • Promote Mobility

    Children between the ages of 8 to 12 months are keen to explore their surroundings. A walker can provide them with the mobility they need and help them to manoeuvre themselves without any assistance.

Disadvantages of Using Baby Walkers

Here are a few disadvantages related to the use of baby walkers:

  • Babies using walkers may actually reach the walking or crawling milestones later than others who don’t.

  • Your baby should follow the roll-sit up-crawl-walk routine for which it is important for him to stay on the floor. This workout helps in strengthening all the muscles needed to stand or walk. A walker may prevent your baby from doing so and impair normal development.

  • Objects which are out of reach for a crawling baby may come within reach of a baby in a walker, and this could be the cause of injury.

  • Your baby’s toes and fingers could be injured as the walker’s design may have folding parts or hinges.

  • A walker with wheels reduces your reaction time if it picks up speed and can lead to an accident.

Does Baby Walker Help Balance?

The natural process of rolling over, crawling, standing, and then walking teaches a baby how to balance himself. When you allow the baby to use a walker, the baby’s position causes him to lean forward from the hip. The child does not have to balance himself in a walker. Whether a baby tips to the side or forward, the walker will prevent him from falling. The baby will need to learn to balance himself, afresh.

Are baby walkers safe?

Experts say baby walkers aren't safe – and they don't help babies learn to walk faster, either.

Baby walkers are circular, wheeled toys with suspended seats. They're designed so your baby's feet can touch the ground while they're seated, so they can propel themself around.

Even as new safety features have been implemented over the years, thousands of babies every year end up in emergency rooms and doctor's offices from falling down stairs or bumping into furniture while in a walker.

Walkers on the market now are required to have "stair-fall protection" – either a gripping mechanism that keeps the walker from going over the edge of a stairwell or a design that prevents the walker from fitting through a doorway. Older walkers (such as those bought secondhand) don't have these safety features.

But even with the extra safety features, experts say baby walkers aren't safe to use. Walkers make babies taller, so they might be able to reach dangerous objects (like hot cups of coffee or knives on countertops) or touch a hot stove. Babies could also tip and fall over objects.

(To find out whether a walker or other baby product you own has been recalled, check the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission's list of recalled products.)

Activity centers and jumpers are much safer alternatives. And baby walking toys – which have wheels so babies can stand in front of them and push them along as they learn to walk – are safe to use.

If you're looking for a toy that you can set your baby in and have a few moments to yourself, activity centers and freestanding jumpers will keep your baby occupied – and stationary, so you don't have to worry about them wandering off. Both offer your baby plenty of opportunities to safely explore and practice their fine motor skills like grasping, grabbing, and shaking, as well as gross motor skills like standing and bouncing.

Experts recommend a 15 to 20-minute limit on time in a jumper or activity center, though, since your baby also needs plenty of floor time to practice their skills independently.

Baby walking toys – also called push toys – are great for when your baby can pull themself up, stand, and even cruise. They give your baby extra support and help them balance. Once they start taking steps, your baby can push the walking toy in front of them.

Just make sure the walking toy is sturdy enough that it won't tip over if your baby uses it to pull themself up. Block off any stairways, as well as rooms you don't want your baby to go in, and supervise your baby while they're playing with the walking toy.

Should I buy a baby walker for my child?

It is best not to buy a baby walker. Most experts and doctors strongly discourage the use of baby walkers as they are known to cause serious injuries and accidents.
Baby walkers are dangerous as they give babies extra speed, extra height and access to many hazards. They are also unstable on uneven surfaces. The use of baby walkers is a huge concern for many countries. In Canada, the sale of baby walkers is banned.
Most injuries are caused by falls when the baby walker tips and the baby is thrown to the ground. Or when a baby in a walker falls down the stairs, or bumps her head somewhere.
Babies in walkers can also crash into furniture, household equipment, indoor plants, doors or windows. There is also an increased risk of your baby being burnt by previously out-of-reach objects, such as candles, diyas, agarbattis, and cups of hot drinks.
A walker also allows your baby to reach for household poisons, such as perfume, mouthwash, alcohol, medicines and household cleaners that used to be at a safe level.
Walkers can give parents a false impression that their babies are truly mobile and can control their actions. Some parents even leave their babies alone to navigate their way around the home in a walker. But walkers won't help your baby learn to walk. Using one too much may even delay her development slightly.
In fact, walkers allow babies to move around before they are physically ready for it, which can cause unusual movement patterns and delayed muscle control. Babies learn to walk in part by watching and understanding how their feet and legs move. If a walker has a tray or a rim around, they can't see what's happening with their lower body and don't get the information they need about their motor development.
Your baby needs to roll, crawl, sit and to play on the floor, in order to reach her developmental milestones. So try to get your baby to exercise and build in some "floor time" to firm up those muscles.
If you'd really like to give baby the walking practice you think she needs, do so at home, in parks or wide open spaces. You can actually take her hand in yours and guide her in taking her steps. This way, she gets a better feel of her legs in motion and a better feel of the ground under her feet. An open space also lets her explore moving in a wide area.
You may feel that if your baby were occupied in her walker, she could be left unwatched for short periods. In reality, extra care is needed when your baby is in a walker. Even with supervision, accidents in baby walkers can easily occur.

A baby in a baby walker can travel one metre per second, so an accident can happen before you are able to stop it. Your baby would be safer left on the floor in a hazard-free room. Read tips on baby-proofing your house.

Health Benefits of Riding Bikes and Adult Trikes

Being fit and healthy requires physical activity. Regular activity helps to ward of serious diseases such as cancer, heart disease, and obesity. Great harm is done to bodies that live a sedentary life style. Most people do not like going to gyms because they find them expensive and boring.

Bicycle and adult tricycle riding is a great way to keep active while also keeping a smile on your face. Cycling is a low-impact activity, which means that it something that can be enjoyed by almost everyone. Running is a high impact sport that does damage to knees, feet, and ankles.

Cargo BikesWorksman Adult Tricycles come in various designs, with a wide range of options.

What are some of the health benefits of riding trikes and bikes?

Cycling uses all muscle groups, meaning that riding a bike gives a person a full body work out. Those that go to the gym tend to only work on specific sections at a time rather than the whole body.

Once someone gets the hang of riding, it becomes an easy activity. For those that have balance issues, consider purchasing an adult tricycle. Those that haven’t ridden in a while can still get on a bike and ride.

Using a trike is considered an aerobic activity, which means that heart rates go up and stay up for at least twenty minutes. Riding a bike is regarded as a great way to build strength and stamina.

Biking and triking can be as hard as you want it to be. You can get on your bicycle and go for a casual ride or a fast-paced, uphill climb.

It is hard to find people that ride bikes and do not have fun in the process. There is something special about the wind on your face as you cruise along.

When using a cargo bike to commute and shop, you can save yourself a great deal of time. Get your exercise while running errands.

Things About Swing Cars

If you’re honest with yourself, you will admit that you secretly envy your baby a little for being born in a decade where he has access to such cool and fancy toys and baby gear. How you wish you could play with those fine quality wooden toys or ride those cute and colourful swing cars which were popular back when you were a kid, but maybe not so affordable. Now, these are not just new and improved but they also come in various types and price ranges, making it possible for every parent to get one for their little racers. Watching your munchkin giggling and flaunting their shiny new toy is bound to get you excited!


12 Other Ways To Use All Your Makeup Bags

Every beauty guru knows what it's like to have way too many makeup bags. Whether you keep buying makeup that comes with free gift bags or you simply can't stop buying adorable ones, there comes a point when your excess starts to go to become almost silly, and you have to find other uses for your makeup bags. After all, there are only so many you need to actually hold your products, and you always end up picking a favorite bag and then neglecting the others. They end up in a pile of used, dirty, and kind of gross little bags that you have no idea what to do with, but can't seem to get rid of.

I know this struggle all too well. As someone who subscribed to Ipsy's monthly beauty subscription for over a year (Ipsy sends their samples in cute, useful bags instead of boxes), and is a fashion/beauty/lifestyle editor who gets lots of free samples, I've accumulated so many makeup bags that it's actually just wasteful at this point. I try to rotate between them, but many of them still end up sitting in a box in the corner of my room, sad and covered in eyeliner stains.

Recently, I realized that I could be doing more with my bags instead of ignoring them or passing them off to random friends (who don't even want anymore at this point). If you have a ton of old makeup bags that you have no idea what to do with, read on. These 12 ideas will not only give your bags a purpose, they'll also make your life a little bit easier, and a lot more organized. How does it get better than that?

1. Use them as a pouch in your handbag to hold small items.

2. Keep them in your room as mini storage units for little things you could easily lose.

3. Sew chains onto them to make them into tiny cross body bags.

4. Stock your old bags with period supplies and keep them in your office as an emergency kit.

The best (and worst) places to store your makeup, skincare and perfumes

There’s nothing worse than a mouldy blending sponge or that rancid smell that comes from a perfume you’ve left on the bottom shelf for too long. After you’ve completed the critical job of

There’s nothing worse than a mouldy blending sponge or that rancid smell that comes from a perfume you’ve left on the bottom shelf for too long. After you’ve completed the critical job of picking the best and most efficient makeup and skincare products, knowing where to store them, and how to safely use them, is of utmost importance. “All makeup products and tools should be stored in a designated cool and dry place, away from moisture. That means you definitely should not store your makeup in the bathroom. Instead, maintain a vanity kit or a drawer for your makeup products to make sure they’re not contaminated with bacteria from other products or due to high humidity,” recommends Dr Harshna Bijlani, medical head, The AgeLess Clinic. Apart from the shelf life mentioned on the back of the product (like 12M or 9M for example), changes in colour and texture are the tell-tale signs of your makeup expiring. Post-dated makeup products can cause infection (especially of the eyes), acne breakouts and irritation. “When you see a a white-ish residue on lipsticks or have difficulty in applying them, or spot the formulas of other products separating (when the water/oil separated from the powder), that’s the time to trash the product,” she explains.

Storing rules are not just restricted to skincare and makeup. If your favourite citrus fragrance is not giving you a similar whiff of freshness as when you first bought it, chances are that it might be exposed to sunlight. Perfumer Rajiv Sheth, CEO and creative director of All Good Scents, reveals that it’s not necessary to store the fragrances in their original boxes, but is critical to save them from sunlight and heat. “Stored in a correct way, a fragrance can last as long as five years. To increase the shelf life, it’s best to store them away from sunlight in cool, dark places. You can even keep them even in refrigerator at the peak of Indian summer,” he explains.

How long can you use your skincare products, and how to store them

If you’re keeping your cleansers and exfoliators by your washbasin, you’ll want to use them up quickly—especially if they come in jars or tubes. If it’s a product that doesn’t need to be used immediately, Dr Biljani suggests stowing them in cool, dark areas like a vanity or bedside table, as mould and bacteria grow quickly in a warm, steamy bathroom.


Dr Bijlani recommends that once you open your cleanser, it’s best to dispose it one year from the opening date, even if the expiry reads longer. After being exposed to external factors, the quality of the face wash will deteriorate quickly, especially if it is stored next to the washbasin where the air is rife with moisture.

Essential Features and Types of Makeup Bags and Cases

If you love and use beauty products, then there’s no question that owning a makeup bag is absolutely essential. Applying makeup is always the fun part, but keeping all the makeup products organized in one place can become a bit demanding. You definitely won’t like rummaging through your favorite cosmetics and then end up smudging or damaging them.

This is why you need to have makeup bags and makeup cases that you can use. With the right makeup case or makeup bag, everything will become easier and more efficient. You will be able to organize your makeup items and tools neatly and effectively.

Easy Organization: Whether you are a makeup lover or just like keeping things organized, makeup bags are necessary to keep your cosmetic collection neat and tidy. Avoid Clutter: This will give you a reason to get rid of all the expired or any unused makeup products. Store only the items that you regularly use. Quick Access: By keeping all your beauty products such as concealers, makeup brushes, lipsticks, lip gloss, and eye pencils in separate sections you can quickly access them when in a hurry. Compartmentalization: Make groups of similar items and keep them sorted in one place. This will allow easy access to small accessories such as lip balms, bobby pins, hair bands, creams, and all those mini items that are difficult to keep a track of.

Reasons why every makeup enthusiast needs an organiser in her vanity

Imagine this, you're in a hurry to get to someplace and you've just sat down to do your makeup. But you can barely even find a lip balm because you have too many products and all piled one over the other? Isn't that extremely frustrating and infuriating? Not only does it make you late but also makes you irritable and annoyed.

When you have a beautifully designed dressing table at your home, the last thing you will be wanting is to destroy its aesthetics with your cosmetics lying around like a mess. Besides, not keeping the cosmetics organised will only waste your time when you're getting late and you are unable to find the lipstick or the eyeshadow you need to apply.

Here are a few benefits of having a makeup organiser:

  • Getting ready becomes all the more fun when you're sitting in a cleaner place

  • You can easily find everything

  • It's the easiest way to prevent you from hoarding

  • Puts you in a better mood to see all your things tidy

  • Easy accessibility to everything

We did some research and came out with five well-designed makeup organisers that can hold all your cosmetics in place so that next time you don’t need to get late for any event.

INOVERA Plastic 16 Compartment Cosmetic Makeup Lipstick Storage Organizer Box

If you are looking for a spacious makeup organizer to keep your dressing table clutter-free, this one from INOVERA promises to be a good purchase. The 16 thoughtfully designed 12 smaller compartments will allow you to organize smaller items like lipsticks, lip balms, and nail polish, conveniently. The 3 rectangular compartments are perfect for brushes, eyeliners, mascara and lip lacquers, easily. There’s a large square compartment where you can stack all the creams, perfume bottles and hair sprays. The organizer is crafted from premium-quality, crystal clear plastic and measures 21.2cm in length, 12.5cm in width and 7.8cm in height.

What is a Tool Trolley?

tool trolley is a cart-like device that helps categorize, carry, and safeguard various tools. Tool trolleys are particularly useful for professional craftsmen, such as builders, carpenters, and machinists, who have a large amount of equipment to organize and tote around. Tool trolleys can also be used by hobbyists. For example, someone who enjoys woodworking may use a trolley to help store and arrange his or her tools. A tool trolley may also be referred to as a tool cart.

In essence, a tool trolley is a larger version of a tool case, tool chest, or tool box. Tool cases, chests, and boxes usually have a box shape with a base and a hinged cover. Generally, they also have a handle on top as well as latches that attach the cover to the base. Typically, they can be carried by hand from one location to another.

Tool trolleys, on the other hand, are generally larger in size. On average, they are about the size of a small desk. They are usually waist-high and have wheels on the bottom that allow them to be rolled from one area to another. Historically, tool trolleys were made from wood. In modern times, however, a tool trolley is typically made from either metal or plastic.



Differences Between Fiber Pigtails and Fiber Patch Cords

If you have doubts on the differences between fiber pigtails and fiber patch cords this article will help you to know their main differences. The main difference between these two cables is that pigtails have one side terminated with a connector and other side ends with bare fibers, while patch cords have two connectors terminated on both ends. Let’s see in more detail how these assemblies are used and how are they distinguished.

What is Fiber Pigtail?

A fiber pigtail usually has an optical connector pre-installed at one end and where the other end bare fiber is used for fusion splicing to another fiber. Pigtails can have female or male connectors. Fiber optic pigtails are usually unjacketed in order to be spliced and then protected in a fiber splice tray with a mechanical or thermal splice joint protector.

What is Fiber Patch Cord?

A patch cable, also known as patch cord or patch lead, is an electrical or optical fiber cable used to connect one electronic or optical device to another. The connectors of a patch cord can be installed at the ends with the same type of connector or different ones, for example, it can have an SC connector at both ends or it can have an SC connector at one end and an LC connector on the other end. Fiber optic patch cords are jacketed and are available in simplex (1 fiber), duplex (2 fibers), or in multiple fiber counts like MPO (12 fibers).

How to Test Connectors?

Using a light source, pigtails and patch cords can quickly be tested for continuity, in other words light goes in and comes out at the other end. If it doesn’t, a break or blockage is preventing the light from propagating, so usually patch cords are ordered as unjacketed patch cords, tested with a light source then cut in two pieces in order to make two pigtails.

There are several options when looking for this type of equipment, which becomes difficult when looking for the best option reducing the possibilities due to the quality of the product, price or even the delivery times that exceed your deadlines. For that, Twoosk specialised marketplace in telecommunications offer a wide range of telecom equipment, including pigtails and patch cords with fast deliveries.

What Does Keystone Jack Mean?

Keystone jacks are keystone module connectors used in data communication and LAN wiring. It is the female connector that is usually mounted in a wall plate or patch panel and is connected to the matching male connector, called the keystone plug. A keystone module is a snap-in package that is used for mounting various types of low-voltage electrical jacks. It can also be used for mounting optical connectors into the wall plate or patch panel.

Keystone jacks are used in the wiring system of LAN and Ethernet connections. They are called keystone jacks because the jack looks similar to an architectural keystone, just like the standard RJ-11 wall jack that is used to connect telephones, fax machines and dial-up systems.

They offer the advantage of providing versatility. A single panel can be used to mount many types of keystone jacks in either shielded or unshielded forms. They are also capable of accommodating different types of cords or cables and various types and numbers of conductors. Shielded keystone jacks help protect data from electromagnetic interference.

Some keystone modules have a jack on the front with a different mechanism for the back end. Other modules may have a jack on both the front and the back side. Wiring a keystone jack can be done by punching down the wires into the blades built into the keystone jack.

How To Attach Keystone Jack To Wall Plate

Connecting a Keystone to a wall plate can be completed in just a couple quick steps. This is one of the final touches on any home or business network. Maybe your adding a connection to each bedroom or redoing an office connecting wall plates are a great tool for adding ethernet paths. In this DIY blog we will cover how to attach a keystone jack to a wall plate and how to remove a keystone jack from wall plate.

  1. Grab your Keystone and Wall Plate

    Grab your keystone jacks and wall plates that you will be installing. For this example we will be using an un terminated keystone jack, which means it has no cable attached to it right now. Connecting your cables through the wall and on to the keystone jack first is the easiest way to complete this task. Then attach the keystone jack to the wall plate and once completed attach to the wall.

  2. Use The Bottom of Keystone Jack

  3. Look for the edge sticking out of the bottom of the keystone jack. You will be using this part to clip on to the wall plate first.

  4. Put Bottom of Keystone Jack In First

  5. Make sure that the wall plate is in Up position. Wall plate should have an arrow for you to see. If not The lip with a little opening on the top if the top. Ensure that the groove sticking out of keystone jack is over the back side lip of wall plate. This will make it so the jack can snap in to wall plate.

  6. Press Down on Top Clip Of Keystone Jack etc.

Difference Between Cabinet and Cupboard

The terms cabinet and cupboard are almost synonymous. The truth is, they serve almost the same purposes with most people not being in a position to differentiate what is stored where. In that case, you won’t fail to find more people using a cabinet in place of a cupboard or referring to a cabinet as a cupboard. In the villages, for example, most people store their utensils in cabinets designed to look like cabinets.

The truth is, there are a few differentiating details about a cabinet and a cupboard. The main difference that most people refer to is the presence of shelves in cabinets. The shelves are not present in cabinets although this is a loose but pertinent distinction.

To shed more light on what makes a cabinet to be called so and a cupboard to be referred to as one, this post seeks to bring out the differences in detail.

The term cabinet refers to a box-shaped piece of furniture or storage furniture with doors and / or drawers. It is usually used for storing miscellaneous items at home or in a workplace.

While some cabinets are built to stand on their own, others can be inbuilt or mounted on a wall. The materials used to make them include wood and stainless steel and other synthetic materials. As for commercial grade cabinets that differ in the materials used, the names used are casegoods, casework, or case furniture.

A cabinet is usually fitted with one or more doors on the front side. The doors are mounted with door hardware and a lock in most cases.

A cupboard is sort of a closed piece of furniture used to display cookeries and other kitchen utensils mainly. Although the word was initially used to refer to open-shelved side tables for displaying dishwares like cups, saucers, and plates, the use of the term has gradually changed over time. The open cupboard initially had between one or three display tiers, and sometimes a drawer or multiple drawers were fitted to them.

There are three main types of cupboards. These are:

  • Airing cupboard: – this is a storage space that contains a water heater. The heater can be a boiler for central water heating or an immersion heater for hot running water. The shelves in such a cupboard are slatted to allow for maximum heat circulation. They are also positioned around or above the heater to provide for storage for clothing, typically toweling and linen. This allows air to circulate freely around the fabrics stored in there and prevent damping.

  • Built-in cupboard: – this is a storage space that usually forms a component of the design of the area it is to be installed in. It is not a moveable or free-standing one and is not the same as a cabinet.

  • Linen cupboard: – linen cupboards are enclosed recesses of a room and are used to store household linen like towels, sheets, and tablecloths.

What Is A Server Rack in Data Center?

server rack is an open frame structure designed for accommodating technical or electronic equipment including routers, network switches, hubs, servers, etc. The server rack makes it possible to securely hold multiple pieces of equipment in one area and are typically going to be used by businesses and kept either in data centers or communications closets.

Data center server rack can hold all standard 19-inch rack-mountable equipment, as long as it isn’t too deep for the rack cabinet or too high to fit in the available rack spaces. The equipment often includes removable mounting brackets that fasten to the vertical rack rails with screws. Heavier equipment may also include horizontal rails or rack shelves that mount in the rack to provide extra support. Other rack accessories that support the operation of the production equipment includes UPS systems, PDUs, cable managers, switches, patch panels and fiber enclosures. The following descriptions illustrate the common types of data center server racks.

Data center open server rack consists of mounting rails without sides or doors - an open-air structure for mounting network equipment. They can come in a wide range of different sizes so that they can house almost any type of equipment. These racks are installed in one location and are generally bolted to the floor in order to provide greater stability.

Additionally, open frame server racks are typically used for server rooms that don’t require physical security and don’t need added airflow control. They can provide easy access and offer plenty of open space for cable management, making this solution ideal for network wiring closets and distribution frame applications with high-density cabling. There are two basic types of open server racks: 2-post and 4-post rack. The difference is that 2-post racks generally require less depth but support less weight than 4-post racks.



What is a pressure transmitter?

pressure transmitter is a mechanical device that measures the expansive force of a liquid or gaseous sample.

Also known as a pressure transducer, this type of sensor is typically composed of a pressure sensitive surface area made of steel, silicon, or other materials depending upon the analyte’s composition. Behind these surfaces are electronic components capable of converting the applied force of the sample upon the pressure sensor into an electrical signal.

Pressure is generally measured as a quantity of force per unit of surface area, and is expressed as the value required to stop a liquid, gas, or vapor from expanding. Various derived units are used to quantify pressure, including:

  • As a proportion of / relation to a pascal (Pa), or a single newton per square meter (1 N/m2);

  • A value of pounds per square inch (psi).

Pressure sensitive environments such as the gas, petrochemical, laboratory, and pharmaceutical industries often require pressure transmitters to monitor the applied force of liquids and gasses as a value of either Pa or psi. This necessitates the precise integration of pressure transmitters into rapid electrical conversion equipment, to ensure results are accurate and delivered in real-time.

More often however, industrial professionals rely on comprehensive gauge systems with incorporated pressure transmitters to maintain optimal pressure levels for gas, oils, and high temperature liquids.

Gauge Pressure Transmitters

Gauge pressure transmitters are equipped for absolute pressure measurements with industry-specific considerations to support severe process monitoring. Steel diaphragms fitted to pressure vessels or pipework can register minute deformations relating to applied force, which is in turn swiftly translated into an electrical signal by a pressure sensor within the gauge transmitter. This can be measured remotely, or monitored through intuitive, user-friendly displays at the site of measurement.

Applications of Pressure Transmitters

Pressure transmitters are routinely used in a wide range of industrial sectors. Offshore drilling and oil exploration commonly utilize pressure sensors to measure differential values between the interior and exterior of pressure sensitive equipment. Distinct parameters must be maintained to ensure drilling and acquisition processes are carried out to an ethical and efficient standard. This is also true of on-shore petrochemical, gas, and chemical facilities.

Numerous industries use pressure-sensitive transportation and storage devices to maintain optimal product conditions, which must be accurately monitored to ensure safe delivery and eventual application. Laboratories also use pressure sensors to measure the relative pressure of vacuum chambers to the atmosphere, supporting a limitless range of emerging studies.

Pressure Transmitters from ABB

ABB is a leading developer of measurement instrumentation for industrial and research applications, with an established range of pressure sensors suitable to everyday and cutting-edge applications. With All-Welded technologies, automatic on-board configuration, and enhanced plug and play graphical interfaces, measuring pressure can be a safe and seamless process.

Pressure Sensor Types: Piezoresistive Sensors & Pressure Measuring Methods

Whether you are new to the technology or have worked with pressure sensors for years, how confident are you with some of the terminology involved in pressure sensor selection? Today I will provide a refresher on the common terminology you will be exposed to during your quest to spec the best pressure sensor for your application.

With a growing pressure sensor market and an increase in applications for the technology, as an engineer you are bound to work with pressure sensors if you haven’t already. A recently published Zion Research report on the market estimates the global demand for pressure sensors to reach USD 9.5 billion by 2020, up from USD 6.5 billion in 2014. The key markets for pressure sensors are automotive, consumer electronics, industrial, medical, and oil & gas, though the application of this technology is ever-expanding.

As pressure sensors become increasingly prevalent, it is important for engineers to know the basic terminology for product selection. Let’s review some of the common terms and questions related to selecting a pressure sensor.

How Does a Pressure Sensor Work? Piezoresistive Sensors

The most common type of pressure sensor for general purpose detection uses a diaphragm made of silicon or stainless steel (for harsher applications) as a strain gauge, meaning a flexible material designed to deflect in proportion to the amount of applied pressure. That deflection is a measured value that is converted into an electrical signal the sensor can interpret. When taking a deeper technical dive into how the sensing element works, you may hear reference to piezoresistive type pressure sensors. Piezo comes from the Greek word “piezein,” which means “squeeze” or “apply some pressure.” The piezoresistive effect is the change in electrical resistance of a semiconductor material due to mechanical stress across the piezo material, or diaphragm. Piezoresistive sensors convert the mechanical energy from the deflected diaphragm into proportionate levels of resistance, unlike their cousin the piezoelectric sensor, who converts the stimulus to a charge or voltage. Piezoresistive sensors are typically available in a wider variety of packaging options and specify abilities greater than 10 mV/V. An example of a piezoresistive pressure sensor is the 33A-015D from TE Connectivity.

Pressure Transducers and Water Pipe Pressure Measurement

Water pressure transducers also called a water pressure sensor,
are pressure transmitters that can measure water pipe pressure.

For the water level/water depth measurement,
in the tank, or in the well, we can use electrical transmitters, stainless steel body, IP65-IP6, 4-20ma output.

Sino-Inst applies application expertise to design and manufacture pressure sensors and transducers for the water industry.

Various factors impact the selection and long term use of water pressure sensors and transducers, in residential, commercial, and irrigation systems.

Sino manufactures various products with design features, to offer excellent accuracy and long term stability.

Below is some basic information to review, before making a decision on the type of pressure sensor technology, as well as the electrical and mechanical features required.

A pressure sensing element will come in contact with varying pH levels, depending on the type of water, chemicals added, and the quality of the water purification process.

Sino packages pressure sensors using silicon strain gages, mounted onto a one-piece, 316L stainless steel sensing element.

316L SS offers excellent media compatibility for residential, and commercial water applications and is an NSF61 compliant material.


Rain, ice, dust, and pressure washers can cause water to seep into sensor housings, and cause the electronics to short.

Sino offers sealed gauge reference pressure sensors to protect the electronics from these conditions.

Electrical Isolation

Improper grounding and lightning strikes can cause electrical failures of pressure sensors, as a result of isolation failure.

Sino can include custom electronics and a sensing element to withstand 500VDC isolation to work in extreme electrical conditions.

The use of a 4-20mA output signal for transmission lengths greater than 15 feet in environments with electrical noise, will help prevent signal loss or noisy signal conditions.

Sanitary sensors

Sanitary Sensors that Deliver Accurate Data in Food and Pharma Industries

Having access to accurate pressure and temperature readings at all times is essential in hygienic processing environments such as the food and pharmaceutical industries. Regulatory requirements demand 24/7 product monitoring as well as extensive documentation of quality control processes.

Accomplishing this task means having accurate, reliable pressure, temperature and level measurement instruments in your production facilities, and setting up network infrastructure to support, and distribute and retain the data.

WIKA offers a complete line of accurate and reliable sanitary sensors, including a variety of pressure and level transmitters and a range of electrical thermometer and temperature transmitters that have been designed exclusively for hygienic applications and meet 3A and EHEDG approvals.

Sanitary Sensors for Pressure and Level Measurement

WIKA Models IPT-10 and IPT-11

WIKA model IPT-10 and IPT-11 sanitary sensors are designed for use in the pharmaceutical, and food and beverage sectors. Available with a standard hygienic fitting or a flush diaphragm, these sanitary pressure sensors can be ordered with metallic or ceramic measuring cells in seven different housing variants. The transmitters are configured with a Device Type Manager (DTM) as a Field Device Tool (FDT).

WIKA Models UPT-20 and UPT-21

WIKA model UPT 20 and 21 sanitary sensors are commonly used in pharmaceutical, cosmetic, beverage and food industries. This type of pressure transmitter can be easily converted to meet hygienic standards by adding an applicable industry standard sanitary diaphragm seal. These sanitary sensors feature a large, rotatable multi-functional display, and easy, intuitive menu navigation.

WIKA Model SA-11

WIKA SA-11 sanitary sensors are certified to meet all 3A and EHEDG standards for pressure and level measurement in the food, pharmaceutical, biotechnology, and cosmetic industries. These devices are designed for temperatures up to 300°F and are available in 1.5" and 2" Tri-Clamp® process connections, while offering 0.25% accuracy. The applied technology allows a full scale measuring span down to 100 inches of water column.

WIKA Model S-10-3A

The model S-10-3A sanitary pressure transmitter is designed for use in the food and beverage, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic sectors. This sanitary sensor is 3A compliant and is available with a 3/4", 1.5" or 2.0" Tri-Clamp® process connection. An integral cooling extension element can also be added for high or low temperature applications.

WIKA Model DPT-10

WIKA’s DPT-10 provides differential pressure measurement for applications in the pharmaceutical, biotechnology, and food and beverage industries. This highly accurate pressure sensor features scalable measuring ranges, seven different housing variants, and meets or exceeds a variety of standards for use in hazardous areas. These differential pressure transmitters are configurable using a Device Type Manager (DTM) as a Field Device Tool (FDT).

Capacitive Elements

The modeling and characterization of capacitive elements with tissue as the dielectric material, representing the core building block of a capacitive link for wireless power transfer to neural implants. Each capacitive element consists of two parallel plates that are aligned around the tissue layer and incorporate a grounded, guarded, capacitive pad to mitigate the adverse effect of stray capacitances and shield the plates from external interfering electric fields. The plates are also coated with a biocompatible, insulating, coating layer on the inner side of each plate in contact with the tissue. A comprehensive circuit model is presented that accounts for the effect of the coating layers and is validated by measurements of the equivalent capacitance as well as impedance magnitude/phase of the parallel plates over a wide frequency range of 1 kHz-10 MHz. Using insulating coating layers of Parylene-C at a thickness of 7.5 µm and Parylene-N at a thickness of 1 µm deposited on two sets of parallel plates with different sizes and shapes of the guarded pad, our modeling and characterization results accurately capture the effect of the thickness and electrical properties of the coating layers on the behavior of the capacitive elements over frequency and with different tissues.


Once the board has paste applied, the components are placed on top. This can be done by hand or by a machine. Using tweezers is a great way to place components. There is a common fallacy that you need large, expensive machines to make electronics. Not true! A human is quite fast at placing components and the surface tension of liquid metal is such that most components will shift into their correct location during reflow. But humans have a limit to their stamina. After a few hours it becomes harder to place components quickly. The small size of the components also tend to strain eyes.

You don’t need a pick and place machine to make electronics; you need a pick and place machine to build a lot of electronics.

SparkFun started by placing all the components by hand and we still do! But if we have more than about a hundred units to build we use a pick and place machine to allow us to build lots of boards.

A pick and place (PNP) machine is a robotic assembly device that uses a vacuum to lift a component off of a piece of tape, rotate it to the right orientation, then place it on a circuit board. It takes a few hours to setup a machine to build the assembly, but once everything is running, it is very fast.

In a large factory, a conveyor belt often carries the board directly from an automated paste deposition machine into the pick-and-place machines; at SparkFun, we move our boards manually around the production floor.

What is SMT Manufacturing?

Surface Mount Technology (SMT) is the method used to mount electrical components directly onto the surface of a PCB. This multi-step process begins with the stenciling solder paste. Think of it like screen-printing a t-shirt, only instead of ink, Qualitel uses a solder paste to print the paste, and then the pick and place machines place the parts on the board. After the PCB boards with components are mounted, they go through a reflow oven to melt the solder. The SMT process includes multiple inspection points to ensure the highest quality at every stage of manufacturing. Qualitel has five SMT lines, including two that are dedicated to their Express Prototyping facility for quick-turn electronics manufacturing and prototyping services.

SMD Spotlights vs. LED - What Is The Difference?

Since LED lights burst onto the market a few years ago, they’ve undergone some evolutionary changes that have improved varying aspects of their performance.

One of the most significant steps has been the emergence of SMD technology – short for Surface Mounted Device.

There are a number of reasons for its importance – and we’re going to look at some of those now.

Increase In Energy Efficiency

One of the biggest improvements is that SMD spotlights offer a higher lumen output for a lower energy consumption – making them more powerful and energy efficient than older LED lights.

This is because they work on the principle that fewer and larger SMD LEDs produce a greater lumen output. Let’s see how this works in practice then.

Our Dimmable 6W 27 SMD GU10 LED Bulb contains, as the name suggests, 27 SMDs. It shines with a maximum brightness of 450 lumens and uses 6W.

Now compare this to our 2.5W 48 SMD GU10 LED Bulb that has 48 SMDs. The brightness here is 268 lumens at 2.5W of power consumption.

As you can see, the bulb with fewer SMDs manages to achieve a much higher lumen count – the first bulb manages 16.67 lumens per SMD, whereas the second example only works out at 5.58 lumens per SMD despite having more SMDs.

It is worth remembering though that there is no industry standard for this rule and no two manufacturers follow the same principle.

Wider Beam Angle

SMD spotlights also take care of one of the early criticisms of LEDs from a few years ago – that their light was too concentrated and didn’t spread very well.

Typically, SMD bulbs have a beam angle of 120o – which even exceeds most halogen bulbs.

Indeed, if we go back to our 6W 27 SMD GU10 LED Bulb we looked at earlier, this too has a beam angle of 120o.

Longer Lifespan

SMD LEDs also improve on what was an already impressive lifespan. Standard GU10 LED bulbs last up to 30,000 hours, but our SMD LEDs will keep going for up to 50,000 hours!

So let’s say you’re using your bulbs for an average of 8 hours per day. A 30,000 hour bulb will last you just over 10 years, but a 50,000 hour bulb goes way past that, and keeps shining for over 17 years!

Now think about if you’re using SMD LEDs across your whole house – this drastically reduces maintenance costs and ensures you spend a lot less on replacing your bulbs.

An added benefit of SMDs too are that they are surface mounted – arranged flat to the surface of the bulb. In comparison to our cluster GU10 LED bulbs, they use considerably less space.

Ultimately this means that our SMD spotlights are compatible with all halogen fixtures and are very stylish in appearance.

Taking all this into consideration, it’s probably worth thinking of SMD LEDs as a kind of ‘second generation’ LED light that have made the technology even more versatile and better placed to rival more traditional lighting solutions.

If you’re looking for lower essential energy costs with a high performance bulb then our SMD spotlights are definitely the bulb for you. Better yet, they’re available in GU10 and in MR16 format.

Types of SMT Stencils Based on Their Manufacturing

SMT stencils are made of robust materials and can be manufactured in different ways. The aperture can be formed on the stencil in any of the following ways:

  • Electroforming: The nickel is electroformed in this process to produce a stencil. It is also referred to as EFAB. There are high initial costs involved in the process. The process also requires high processing times than other manufacturing methods.

  • Laser Cutting: Apertures are created on a stencil foil using a laser machine. Laser cutting is a subtractive process, and it produces fine and accurate results, which is why it is favored over the other processes mentioned here.

  • Chemical Etching: As the name suggests, an aperture is created through chemical etching. The costs involved in the process are low; however, the results are much inferior to laser cutting process.

What Are the Different Types of Stencils Based on Solder Paste Application?

Stencils are divided into the following types based on solder paste application:

  • Prototype Stencils: These SMT stencils are designed for manual solder paste printing applications. Prototype stencils help eliminate printing mistakes. They are made from CAD files or Gerber files provided by the client.

  • Framed Stencils: These stencils are permanently fixed on the frame. They receive the necessary tension from border mesh. Framed stencils are used during bulk volume PCB production. Framed stencils feature smooth aperture walls, and they assure excellent print performance.

  • Frameless Stencils: Against framed stencils, these stencils are not permanently mounted to any frame. These stencils are comparatively affordable than framed stencils and are recommended for short runs or prototype runs.

How to create the perfect SMT reflow oven profile

Printed circuit board assemblies (PCBAs) are often viewed as commodity items. But consistently producing them in volume can take time to perfect.

Electronics manufacturing services (EMS) providers may well have their own preferences when it comes to their choice of machine type and brand. But, broadly speaking, the process steps that they go through to produce PCBAs are the same.

There is however one specific step that can make all of the difference when it comes to quality and consistency - creating the surface mount (SMT) reflow oven profile.

The reflow oven is used primarily for the reflow soldering of surface mount electronic components to printed circuit boards (PCB).

If you fail to profile the oven correctly, then all of the hard work and effort that has gone into loading feeders, programming the machines, optimising the build and then running the production line will be wasted.

So what should your EMS partner be doing to perfect their reflow oven profile? Let's find out.

Working on the baseline

The New Product Introduction (NPI) engineer will usually start the process by selecting an oven profile they have used before and that is stored on their system.

Over time, some EMS providers may develop a range of "baseline" profiles, which can then be selected depending on the PCBA they are working on. The time taken to perfect the baseline profile will pay dividends as most assemblies will then fall within one of them.

Baseline profiles may include:

  • One dedicated to densely populated assemblies with elevated temperatures

  • One dedicated to "standard" assemblies

  • One dedicated to assemblies that contain sensitive parts and require lower temperatures

Using their skill, judgement and experience, the NPI engineer will select the profile and temperature settings that they believe are best suited to the new assembly.


Oxygen concentrator is an electrically operated medical device which provides purified oxygen. This device works by pumping indoor air into a container that separates oxygen from room air and concentrates it to provide oxygen continuously to users.

Oxygen plant is an industrial system designed to generate oxygen. It typically uses air as a feedstock and separate it from other components of air using pressure swing absorption or membrane separation techniques. Such plants are distinct from cryogenic separation plants which separate and capture all the components of air. Oxygen finds broad application in various technological processes and in almost all industry branches. The primary oxygen application is associated with its capability of sustaining burning process, and the powerful oxidant properties. Due to that, oxygen has become widely used in the metal processing, welding, cutting and brazing processes. In the chemical and petrochemical industries, as well as in the oil and gas sector oxygen is used in commercial volumes as an oxidizer in chemical reactions.


nitrogen generator is a stationary or mobile piece of machinery used to separate nitrogen gas from atmospheric air. The vast majority of on-site nitrogen generation systems utilized in industries fall into two broad categories, Pressure Swing Absorption (PSA) nitrogen generators and Membrane nitrogen generators.

Air separation unit ASU is the key utility purveyor to several major industries, including electronics, metallurgy, petroleum refining and chemical processing. Bulk production of atmospheric gases follows the cryogenic separation route, which is energy-intensive owing to the need of compressing large volumes of air.


storage tank is a container for storage of water for domestic and industrial uses. Storage tanks are available in many shapes and sizes. They can be vertical, horizontal, underground and potable, and can be made from plastic, steel, fiberglass, stone or concrete. Water tank leakage and corrosion as well as bacterial growth are threats to the tank. Over the course of years, tank systems weaken or become damaged if corrosion is not controlled. Uncontrolled corrosion results in holes or possible structural failure of the tank, leading to the release of stored liquids into the environment.

compressor is a device that increases the pressure of a substance (usually a gas) by reducing the volume of the substance. Compressors are used in many applications, most of which involve increasing the pressure inside a gas storage container, such as Compression of gases in petroleum refineries and chemical plants, Storage of gas in high pressure cylinders, Cabin pressurization in airplanes, Air storage for underwater activities and Filling tires.

Booster compressor is an air pressure intensifier that is used on a flow of air coming from an existing air compressor system by passing it through additional compression stages to increase or amplify the pressure of the air for applications that require high-pressure ranges. A booster air compressor or compressed air pressure amplifier operates on the simple principle that within a closed system (non-vacuum), the pressure increases as volume decreases. An air booster compression system comprises a receiver tank, pipework, and discharge tank.

An air compressor is a pneumatic device that converts power (using an electric motor, diesel, or gasoline engine, etc.) into potential energy stored in pressurized air (i.e., compressed air). By one of several methods, an air compressor forces more and more air into a storage tank, increasing the pressure.


cryogenic storage tank is a tank that is used to store liquids at very low temperatures, usually liquefied gasses (oxygen, argon, nitrogen, hydrogen, and helium) at -150°C or lower. They are also used for storing gasses at higher temperatures, such as liquefied natural gas. Cryogenic tanks need to have special design in order to keep very low temperatures. They have an outer flask and an inner flask. Between the flasks, there is insulating material separated by vacuum. The flasks are connected only at the neck, that is why cryogenic tanks need to be handled with care. No impacts, vibration or tripping over should be used. Otherwise the insulation can be ruined and the tank become unusable.

gas cylinder is a pressure vessel for storage and containment of gases at above atmospheric pressure. High-pressure gas cylinders are also called bottles. Inside the cylinder the stored contents may be in a state of compressed gas, vapor over liquid, supercritical fluid, or dissolved in a substrate material, depending on the physical characteristics of the contents. A typical gas cylinder design is elongated, standing upright on a flattened bottom end, with the valve and fitting at the top for connecting to the receiving apparatus.


piston pump & motor is a type of reciprocating pump that moves and pressurizes fluid by using one or more reciprocating pistons; it is typically driven by an electric motor through a crankshaft and connecting rod. Though there are many types, all piston pumps feature at least one piston moving in an enclosed cylinder.

Hydraulic piston parts are disc or short cylinder fittings closely within an engine cylinder in which they move up and down against a liquid or gas, used in an internal combustion engine to derive motion, or in a pump to impart motion. A piston is a component of reciprocating engines, reciprocating pumps, gas compressors, hydraulic cylinders, and pneumatic cylinders, among other similar mechanisms. It is the moving component that is enclosed in a cylinder and made gas-tight by piston rings. In an engine, its purpose is to transfer force from the expanding gas in the cylinder to the crankshaft via a piston rod and/or connecting rod.

The hydraulic piston pump is an important device in the hydraulic system. It relies on the reciprocating movement of the piston in the cylinder block to change the volume of the sealed working chamber, to achieve oil absorption and pressurisation.

Hydraulic piston motor is used to drive mobile and construction equipment, winches, ship-cranes, and all kinds of heavy-duty hydraulic equipment for offshore and onshore operations. Piston motors are hydraulic motors with a high speed and displacement range that operate under maximum pressure of up to 450 bar.

Piston parts for Rexroth bring new life to old hydraulic pumps with new hydraulic pump spare parts, Allow users and hydraulic maintenance companies to get fast service, save money for users and people, and allow hydraulic service companies to bring better profits and improve timeliness. And all this spare parts with top quality and 100% replacement with Kawasaki original. The parts include piston, cylinder block, valve plate, saddle bearing, shaft, retainer plate, ball guide, swash plate....

Hydraulic systems are incredibly complex and all vary slightly depending on their intended use.Every system must contain 7 different basic hydraulic parts for Kawasaki in order to function correctly. These are a reservoir oil tank, pipes, a hydraulic pump, a power source, an actuator, valves, and filters.

The piston parts for Sauer Danfoss, as the moving part of the combustion chamber, has the task of converting this released energy into mechanical work. The basic structure of the piston is a hollow cylinder, closed on one side, with the segments piston crown with ring belt, pin boss, and skirt.

Piston pumps for Caterpillar are a type of reciprocating pump that moves and pressurizes fluid by using one or more reciprocating pistons. Three main components can always be found in every piston pump; a piston, a crank, and inlet and outlet valves. The piston is the main source for allowing the liquid to flow in and out through the valves.

Hydraulic pumps for Volvo for its operation uses hydraulic pumps operating under high pressure up to 350 MPa. This system uses the principle of alternately filling the working chambers of the pump and the hydraulic motor with a hydraulic fluid and displacing it from there under high pressure. The speed of movement of the working fluid in such a system is small. The main factor of the system is pressure. The volumetric hydraulic drive in physical dimensions is more compact and has received wider application than hydrodynamic.

Cast iron gear pumps and motors are high pressure and fixed displacement hydraulic pumps and motors which are widely used for construction machinery, agriculture machinery,mining machinery, oil machinery and so on.


Probiotics bulk powder is a lactic acid probiotics according customer requirement from 2-30 strains, andthe potency from 10B to 400B. This probiotics blends is a type of ingredients touse for finished production, but before manufacturing, some ingredients, suchas fruit powder, prebiotics, sweetener needed to mix for the flavor andtaste. Its ingredients include probiotic strains of L. rhamnosus, L.casie, L. plantarum, B. longum, B. breve, L. acidophilus,maltotexin.

Bifidobacterium probiotics, a species of "good bacteria," is the first bacteria to colonize the intestinal tract in infants as they pass through the birth canal. These bacteria, also known as probiotics, are thought to help with digestion . Within the past twenty years, research regarding the benefits of good bacteria such as Bifidobacterium has exploded.

Lactobacillus probiotics are probiotics ("good" bacteria) normally found in human digestive and urinary tracts. They can be consumed for diarrhea and "gut health." "Good" bacteria such as Lactobacillus can help the body break down food, absorb nutrients, and fight off "bad" organisms that might cause diseases. Lactobacillus is sometimes added to fermented foods like yogurt and is also found in dietary supplements. Lactobacillus is most commonly used for diarrhea, including infectious diarrhea and diarrhea in people taking antibiotics.

Bacillus probiotics are an alternative to antibiotics for livestock production. The use of probiotics as feed supplements in animal production has increased considerably over the last decade, particularly since the ban on antibiotic growth promoters in the livestock sector.

Probiotic powder blend can be consumed to help keep the natural balance of the gut ecosystem, prevent the growth of harmful bacteria, and support an overall healthy digestive system. Prebiotics are dietary fibers that feed the good bacteria in the gut, providing the nutrients they need to continue supporting healthy digestion and immune function.

Postbiotics powder is bioactive compound made when the healthy bacteria in your gut ferment fiber. There are various types of postbiotics, and they offer health benefits similar to those of probiotics. Health benefits of postbiotics.

Probiotic supplements are a way to add good bacteria to your body. Probiotic supplements are made of both bacteria and yeast. Common probiotic bacteria can include lactobacillus and bifidobacterium. The most common yeast found in probiotics is saccharomyces boulardii.

Probiotics for food are live microorganisms (such as bacteria and yeasts) that provide health benefits when you consume them. They are naturally present in some fermented foods, added to some food products, and available as dietary supplements. However, not all foods and dietary supplements labeled as "probiotics" have proven health benefits.

Probiotics OEM are live nonpathogenic microorganisms administered to improve microbial balance, particularly in the gastrointestinal tract. They consist of Saccharomyces boulardii yeast or lactic acid bacteria, such as Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species, and are regulated as dietary supplements and foods. Probiotics exert their beneficial effects through various mechanisms, including lowering intestinal pH, decreasing colonization and invasion by pathogenic organisms, and modifying the host immune response. Probiotic benefits associated with one species or strain do not necessarily hold true for others.

The use of animal probiotics has increased considerably over the last 15 years. Probiotics are defined as live microorganisms which can confer a health benefit for the host when administered in appropriate and regular quantities. Once ingested, the probiotic microorganisms can modulate the balance and activities of the gastrointestinal microbiota, whose role is fundamental to gut homeostasis. It has been demonstrated that numerous factors, such as dietary and management constraints, can strongly affect the structure and activities of the gut microbial communities, leading to impaired health and performance in livestock animals.


turbocharger, or turbo, is a gas compressor. It is used to force air into an internal combustion engine. A turbocharger is a form of forced induction. It increases the amount of air entering the engine to create more power. A turbocharger has the compressor powered by a turbine. The turbine is driven by the exhaust gas from the engine. It does not use a direct mechanical drive. This helps to improve the performance of the turbocharger. Early builders of turbochargers called them as "turbosuperchargers". A supercharger is an air compressor used for forcing air into an engine. They thought that by adding a turbine to turn the supercharger, it would yield a "turbosupercharger". The term was soon shortened to "turbocharger". This can now create some confusion. The term "turbosupercharged" is sometimes used to refer to an engine that uses both a crankshaft-driven supercharger and an exhaust-driven turbocharger. This is also called twincharging.

Turbocharger spare parts include cartridges (fully assembled and balanced turbocharger cores); vacuum actuators and pneumatic actuators; electronic actuators (electric servo drives); turbocharger repair kits (spare part kits/sets for quick minor repair); shaft and wheels (turbocharger shafts with turbine wheel, turbine rotors); compressor wheels (turbocharger compressor wheels); VNT nozzle rings (rings with nozzles for VNT turbochargers, VNT geometry control nodes); nozzle ring housings (housings for VNT geometry control elements); bearing housings (cartridge housings, turbo core housings) and so on.


Treadmill is a kind of stationary cardio machine on which you can walk, jog or run indoors. Treadmills usually feature adjustable speeds and inclines to vary your workout, allowing you to simulate a hill with the push of a button. Most commercial treadmills go as fast as 12 mph and reach inclines of 10 percent or higher.

The fitness bench, also known as the exercise bench, is a very important piece of gym equipment that can be used for a variety of exercises and weight lifting routines. Weight training can be made a whole lot easier with the presence and usage of even the simplest and most affordable fitness bench.

Inversion table is used as a treatment primarily for back pain. It is designed to utilize gravity and create some traction in the spine and pelvis, which can take pressure of compressed joints, discs and nerves. Inversion therapy usually involves laying at a downward angle, not hanging completely upside down. The effectiveness of using inversion tables for back pain is not well studied, but anecdotal reports suggest that some people do experience at least short-term relief. However, inversion therapy impacts blood flow (particularly to the head), so people with hypertension, glaucoma or heart disease should be cautious.

power tower offers you a complete piece of exercise equipment that gives you a variety of stations you can use to boost your strength, especially in your upper body. With a quality power tower, you get a piece of equipment that will add great value to your gym, serving as the base for your upper body workouts.

The stepper promotes many practical applications such as physical therapy, exercise, injury prevention, balance, gait training and rehabilitation. The stepper is made from the same soft material as a large balance ball. Each foot pad is 13" across and 5.5" wide, accommodating most any foot size.

spin bike is designed to hold up the rider's weight. These bikes are made of strong steel so that they can handle pressure put on them as a result of the rider's body position changing during a workout. A spin bike has a seat that's usually smaller than what you'll find on a regular bike. The fast cycling motion you experience on a spin bike occurs as a result of specially-designed wheels and the bike's durable construction. A spin bike has one wheel that's connected to a weighted flywheel, which has pedals attached to it.

boxing sand bag (or, British English, punchbag) is a sturdy bag designed to be repeatedly punched. A punching bag is usually cylindrical, and filled with various materials of corresponding hardness. Punching bags are often filled with grains, sand, rags, or other material, and are usually hung from the ceiling or affixed to a stand. Other bags have an internal bladder to allow them to be filled with air or water. The design of a punching bag allows it to take repeated and constant physical abuse without breaking. The bag must also absorb the impact of blows without causing harm to the user.